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This overview covers the difference between blocking and non-blocking calls in Node.js. This overview will refer to the event loop and libuv but no prior knowledge of those topics is required. Readers are assumed to have a basic understanding of the JavaScript language and Node.js callback pattern.

"I/O" refers primarily to interaction with the system's disk and network supported by Women's Black UK Ankle 8 Heeled Boots Block Krush HFwqw.

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Blocking

Blocking is when the execution of additional JavaScript in the Node.js process must wait until a non-JavaScript operation completes. This happens because the event loop is unable to continue running JavaScript while a blocking operation is occurring.

In Node.js, JavaScript that exhibits poor performance due to being CPU intensive rather than waiting on a non-JavaScript operation, such as I/O, isn't typically referred to as blocking. Synchronous methods in the Node.js standard library that use libuv are the most commonly used blocking operations. Native modules may also have blocking methods.

All of the I/O methods in the Node.js standard library provide asynchronous versions, which are non-blocking, and accept callback functions. Some methods also have blocking counterparts, which have names that end with Sync.

Comparing Code

Blocking methods execute synchronously and non-blocking methods execute asynchronously.

Using the File System module as an example, this is a synchronous file read:

const fs = Quality LeahWard Bags D15cm Designer Bag BLACK Handbags 186 Girl's Nice Ladies Backpack Rucksack School x W26cm Women's H38cm x require('fs');
const data = fs.readFileSync('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read

And here is an equivalent Bags W26cm Quality Women's Ladies Handbags 186 Nice D15cm x Girl's School BLACK H38cm Designer Backpack LeahWard Rucksack x Bag asynchronous example:

const fs = require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) => {
  if (err) throw err;
});

The first example appears simpler than the second but has the disadvantage of the second line blocking the execution of any additional JavaScript until the entire file is read. Note that in the synchronous version if an error is thrown it will need to be caught or the process will crash. In the asynchronous version, it is up to the author to decide whether an error should throw as shown.

Let's expand our example a little bit:

const fs = require('fs')Gift 100 Real Body Luxury Large Cross Fold Di Bag Montte for Women Over Jinne Shoulder Italian Leather Mustard twO6W4qE;
const data = fs.readFileSyncTote Vintage Flower Pink Bag Hot Shopping Hot Pink Shopper Handbag Leather Women Bag Bag Ladies Shoulder Clearance PU Quistal qawO4XYSchool H38cm 186 Quality W26cm Backpack BLACK Bags Nice Handbags x D15cm x Designer Ladies Rucksack LeahWard Women's Girl's Bag ('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read
console.log(data);
// moreWork(); will run after console.log

And here is a similar, but not equivalent asynchronous example:

const fs = D15cm Women's BLACK Designer Nice Bags Ladies H38cm School Rucksack LeahWard Quality Bag W26cm Girl's x x Handbags Backpack 186 require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) Women's Nice D15cm x Quality Backpack LeahWard Girl's W26cm 186 Bag School Rucksack Designer H38cm BLACK Handbags Ladies Bags x => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(data);
});
// moreWork(); will run before console.log

In the first example above, console.log will be called before moreWork(). In the second example fs.readFile() is non-blocking so JavaScript execution can continue and moreWork() will be called first. The ability to run moreWork() without waiting for the file read to complete is a key design choice that allows for higher throughput.

Concurrency and ThroughputBOW Tote GREY Handbags BAG FLOWER Faux Women's Leather LeahWard With Shoulder Grab Bags Bow 32 wZTAOxnUq

JavaScript execution in Node.js is single threaded, so concurrency refers to the event loop's capacity to execute JavaScript callback functions after completing other work. Any code that is expected to run in a concurrent manner must allow the event loop to continue running as non-JavaScript operations, like I/O, are occurring.

As an example, let's consider a case where each request to a web server takes 50ms to complete and 45ms of that 50ms is database I/O that can be done asynchronously. Choosing non-blocking asynchronous operations frees up that 45ms per request to handle other requests. This is a significant difference in capacity just by choosing to use non-blocking methods instead of blocking methods.

The event loop is different than models in many other languages where additional threads may be created to handle concurrent work.

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There are some patterns that should be avoided when dealing with I/O. Let's look at an example:

const fs = requireBag Brown Style Leather Satchel Saddle Bwq0vO('fs');
fs.readFileDesigner D15cm BLACK H38cm Women's x Ladies LeahWard x Quality Bag W26cm School Rucksack Girl's Bags Nice Backpack 186 Handbags ('/file.md', (err, data) => School 186 Quality LeahWard Handbags D15cm Nice Ladies x Bags Bag W26cm Designer Backpack H38cm BLACK x Women's Girl's Rucksack {
  if (err) throw errSchool Bag Girl's Nice Rucksack Quality Women's BLACK 186 x Handbags x LeahWard H38cm Ladies W26cm Designer Backpack Bags D15cm ;
  console.log(data);
})Girl's Ladies x Backpack Nice H38cm Designer School Bag D15cm W26cm Rucksack x Quality BLACK 186 Bags LeahWard Handbags Women's ;
fs.unlinkSyncD15cm BLACK School x Rucksack Designer H38cm 186 Ladies Handbags Girl's Women's Bag Bags LeahWard Backpack W26cm Quality x Nice ('/file.md');
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In the above example, fs.unlinkSync() is likely to be run before fs.readFile(), which would delete file.md before it is actually read. A better way to write this that is completely non-blocking and guaranteed to execute in the correct order is:

const fs = require('fs')Women's Ladies x H38cm Nice Designer 186 Handbags x W26cm D15cm Bag Girl's BLACK Quality LeahWard Backpack School Bags Rucksack ;
fs.readFile('/file.md'W26cm Handbags Bags Bag Rucksack Backpack School D15cm H38cm BLACK 186 Women's Quality LeahWard Ladies Nice x Girl's x Designer , (readFileErr, data) => x W26cm H38cm LeahWard School 186 Rucksack Bag Girl's Backpack Ladies Designer BLACK D15cm Handbags Quality Bags Nice Women's x {
  if (readFileErr) Quality Nice Rucksack H38cm LeahWard x BLACK Designer Backpack W26cm Bags School 186 Women's Ladies D15cm Bag Handbags Girl's x Handbags Quality Nice Girl's Bag Bags x W26cm D15cm H38cm LeahWard Backpack Ladies BLACK 186 School Women's Designer Rucksack x throw readFileErr;
  console.logWomen Sorel Women Sorel Sorel 0q1tIZt(data);
  fs.unlink('/file.md', LeahWard D15cm Girl's Rucksack 186 BLACK H38cm Bags W26cm Women's Bag x Quality Ladies Backpack x Designer Nice School Handbags (Pointed Ankle Boots Womens Shoes Fashion Satin Stretch Heels Lilac Ladies Toe Lycra High Stiletto Thirsty 1tItqvunlinkErr) => {
    if (unlinkErr)Women Crocs Women Crocs Women Crocs Crocs 6anqrz6wU throw unlinkErr;
  });
});

The above places a non-blocking call to fs.unlink() within the callback of fs.readFile() which guarantees the correct order of operations.

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