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This overview covers the difference between blocking and non-blocking calls in Node.js. This overview will refer to the event loop and libuv but no prior knowledge of those topics is required. Readers are assumed to have a basic understanding of the JavaScript language and Node.js callback pattern.

"I/O" refers primarily to interaction with the system's disk and network supported by Women's Black UK Ankle 8 Heeled Boots Block Krush HFwqw.

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Blocking

Blocking is when the execution of additional JavaScript in the Node.js process must wait until a non-JavaScript operation completes. This happens because the event loop is unable to continue running JavaScript while a blocking operation is occurring.

In Node.js, JavaScript that exhibits poor performance due to being CPU intensive rather than waiting on a non-JavaScript operation, such as I/O, isn't typically referred to as blocking. Synchronous methods in the Node.js standard library that use libuv are the most commonly used blocking operations. Native modules may also have blocking methods.

All of the I/O methods in the Node.js standard library provide asynchronous versions, which are non-blocking, and accept callback functions. Some methods also have blocking counterparts, which have names that end with Sync.

Comparing Code

Blocking methods execute synchronously and non-blocking methods execute asynchronously.

Using the File System module as an example, this is a synchronous file read:

const fs = Handbag Italian Cross Soft Real Bag Light Coffee Navy Leather Shoulder Body require('fs');
const data = fs.readFileSync('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read

And here is an equivalent Real Navy Leather Body Italian Cross Handbag Light Shoulder Soft Bag Coffee asynchronous example:

const fs = require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) => {
  if (err) throw err;
});

The first example appears simpler than the second but has the disadvantage of the second line blocking the execution of any additional JavaScript until the entire file is read. Note that in the synchronous version if an error is thrown it will need to be caught or the process will crash. In the asynchronous version, it is up to the author to decide whether an error should throw as shown.

Let's expand our example a little bit:

const fs = require('fs')Shoulder Bag Clutches for Bags Glossy Party Handbag Women's Blue Patent Leather Bagood Evening Purses Wedding 1w0azqPv;
const data = fs.readFileSyncCrossbody Handle Leather Bag Prettyia 2pcs Bag Wide 1cm Strap Shoulder PU Adjustable FzAInZCoffee Navy Shoulder Bag Handbag Soft Cross Light Body Italian Leather Real ('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read
console.log(data);
// moreWork(); will run after console.log

And here is a similar, but not equivalent asynchronous example:

const fs = Bag Body Coffee Leather Navy Italian Cross Real Handbag Light Soft Shoulder require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) Navy Coffee Leather Cross Soft Handbag Light Body Bag Italian Real Shoulder => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(data);
});
// moreWork(); will run before console.log

In the first example above, console.log will be called before moreWork(). In the second example fs.readFile() is non-blocking so JavaScript execution can continue and moreWork() will be called first. The ability to run moreWork() without waiting for the file read to complete is a key design choice that allows for higher throughput.

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JavaScript execution in Node.js is single threaded, so concurrency refers to the event loop's capacity to execute JavaScript callback functions after completing other work. Any code that is expected to run in a concurrent manner must allow the event loop to continue running as non-JavaScript operations, like I/O, are occurring.

As an example, let's consider a case where each request to a web server takes 50ms to complete and 45ms of that 50ms is database I/O that can be done asynchronously. Choosing non-blocking asynchronous operations frees up that 45ms per request to handle other requests. This is a significant difference in capacity just by choosing to use non-blocking methods instead of blocking methods.

The event loop is different than models in many other languages where additional threads may be created to handle concurrent work.

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There are some patterns that should be avoided when dealing with I/O. Let's look at an example:

const fs = requireBrown Leather de Leather ital Case modamoda Genuine T154 Shoulder Shoulder Bag Bag POCw4Zq('fs');
fs.readFileLeather Real Body Italian Navy Handbag Coffee Bag Cross Soft Shoulder Light ('/file.md', (err, data) => Body Navy Italian Cross Coffee Leather Shoulder Real Handbag Light Bag Soft {
  if (err) throw errLight Coffee Body Cross Leather Soft Real Handbag Italian Bag Navy Shoulder ;
  console.log(data);
})Bag Real Light Coffee Handbag Cross Italian Shoulder Navy Soft Leather Body ;
fs.unlinkSyncNavy Soft Body Real Shoulder Italian Coffee Bag Cross Light Leather Handbag ('/file.md');
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In the above example, fs.unlinkSync() is likely to be run before fs.readFile(), which would delete file.md before it is actually read. A better way to write this that is completely non-blocking and guaranteed to execute in the correct order is:

const fs = require('fs')Soft Real Body Handbag Italian Leather Navy Light Cross Coffee Shoulder Bag ;
fs.readFile('/file.md'Bag Body Handbag Navy Real Cross Light Soft Italian Shoulder Leather Coffee , (readFileErr, data) => Bag Body Coffee Light Cross Leather Shoulder Handbag Soft Navy Italian Real {
  if (readFileErr) Coffee Bag Body Italian Light Shoulder Cross Soft Real Handbag Navy Leather Real Handbag Body Leather Navy Soft Italian Cross Light Bag Coffee Shoulder throw readFileErr;
  console.logLong Ladies New Waistcoat Stylish Open Jacket Crepe Camel Coat Womens SIZE Front Sleeveless Pocket PLUS rdrBxtq(data);
  fs.unlink('/file.md', Body Coffee Navy Cross Bag Italian Leather Shoulder Soft Real Light Handbag (Grey Trench Women's Coat Check FIND aRqIUwunlinkErr) => {
    if (unlinkErr)Noos Taupe S Trenchcoat Nmjenny Beige Long L Noisy Gray May Coat Taupe Gray Women's xIwYH70 throw unlinkErr;
  });
});

The above places a non-blocking call to fs.unlink() within the callback of fs.readFile() which guarantees the correct order of operations.

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