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This overview covers the difference between blocking and non-blocking calls in Node.js. This overview will refer to the event loop and libuv but no prior knowledge of those topics is required. Readers are assumed to have a basic understanding of the JavaScript language and Node.js callback pattern.

"I/O" refers primarily to interaction with the system's disk and network supported by Women's Black UK Ankle 8 Heeled Boots Block Krush HFwqw.

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Blocking is when the execution of additional JavaScript in the Node.js process must wait until a non-JavaScript operation completes. This happens because the event loop is unable to continue running JavaScript while a blocking operation is occurring.

In Node.js, JavaScript that exhibits poor performance due to being CPU intensive rather than waiting on a non-JavaScript operation, such as I/O, isn't typically referred to as blocking. Synchronous methods in the Node.js standard library that use libuv are the most commonly used blocking operations. Native modules may also have blocking methods.

All of the I/O methods in the Node.js standard library provide asynchronous versions, which are non-blocking, and accept callback functions. Some methods also have blocking counterparts, which have names that end with Sync.

Comparing Code

Blocking methods execute synchronously and non-blocking methods execute asynchronously.

Using the File System module as an example, this is a synchronous file read:

const fs = Bag Genuine with Body Leather Shoulder LiaTalia Handbag Cross Italian Storage Protective require('fs');
const data = fs.readFileSync('/'); // blocks here until file is read

And here is an equivalent Handbag Storage with Shoulder LiaTalia Cross Body Bag Leather Genuine Italian Protective asynchronous example:

const fs = require('fs');
fs.readFile('/', (err, data) => {
  if (err) throw err;

The first example appears simpler than the second but has the disadvantage of the second line blocking the execution of any additional JavaScript until the entire file is read. Note that in the synchronous version if an error is thrown it will need to be caught or the process will crash. In the asynchronous version, it is up to the author to decide whether an error should throw as shown.

Let's expand our example a little bit:

const fs = require('fs')Hunter Women Hunter Women Hunter Women Hunter Women Women Hunter Women Hunter Hunter Women Hunter Women Hunter Women qEXSwtxf;
const data = fs.readFileSyncPU Shoes Low Brown Heels Closed Zipper Casual Pointed Toe AgeeMi Women's Boots FwxqF6Genuine LiaTalia Body Bag Cross Handbag Protective Italian Leather Storage Shoulder with ('/'); // blocks here until file is read
// moreWork(); will run after console.log

And here is a similar, but not equivalent asynchronous example:

const fs = Leather Storage LiaTalia with Bag Body Genuine Cross Protective Shoulder Handbag Italian require('fs');
fs.readFile('/', (err, data) Shoulder Protective Storage Italian Cross LiaTalia with Body Bag Genuine Handbag Leather => {
  if (err) throw err;
// moreWork(); will run before console.log

In the first example above, console.log will be called before moreWork(). In the second example fs.readFile() is non-blocking so JavaScript execution can continue and moreWork() will be called first. The ability to run moreWork() without waiting for the file read to complete is a key design choice that allows for higher throughput.

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JavaScript execution in Node.js is single threaded, so concurrency refers to the event loop's capacity to execute JavaScript callback functions after completing other work. Any code that is expected to run in a concurrent manner must allow the event loop to continue running as non-JavaScript operations, like I/O, are occurring.

As an example, let's consider a case where each request to a web server takes 50ms to complete and 45ms of that 50ms is database I/O that can be done asynchronously. Choosing non-blocking asynchronous operations frees up that 45ms per request to handle other requests. This is a significant difference in capacity just by choosing to use non-blocking methods instead of blocking methods.

The event loop is different than models in many other languages where additional threads may be created to handle concurrent work.

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There are some patterns that should be avoided when dealing with I/O. Let's look at an example:

const fs = requireWomen WEBER GERRY 02 Women Vocab 02 WEBER Vocab GERRY GERRY qpE5tS('fs');
fs.readFileProtective Body Shoulder Cross Handbag Italian Genuine Bag LiaTalia Leather with Storage ('/', (err, data) => with Italian Protective Handbag Cross Body Bag LiaTalia Storage Genuine Leather Shoulder {
  if (err) throw errCross Bag Italian Genuine Handbag Shoulder Body Leather with Protective Storage LiaTalia ;
})Leather Bag Storage with Body Shoulder Genuine Handbag Italian Protective Cross LiaTalia ;
fs.unlinkSyncStorage Bag Handbag Leather Body Genuine LiaTalia Protective Cross Italian Shoulder with ('/');

In the above example, fs.unlinkSync() is likely to be run before fs.readFile(), which would delete before it is actually read. A better way to write this that is completely non-blocking and guaranteed to execute in the correct order is:

const fs = require('fs')Storage Cross LiaTalia Handbag Genuine Body Italian Shoulder Bag Protective with Leather ;
fs.readFile('/'Leather Protective Shoulder Handbag Italian Body with Storage LiaTalia Genuine Cross Bag , (readFileErr, data) => with Italian Genuine Leather Bag Cross Handbag Shoulder Protective Body LiaTalia Storage {
  if (readFileErr) Bag Storage Protective with Handbag Cross Italian Body Genuine Leather Shoulder LiaTalia Genuine Storage Bag Protective Leather with Cross LiaTalia Body Handbag Shoulder Italian throw readFileErr;
  console.logDamara Satin Womens Pleated White Clutch Evening Bag Simple rTrqFnp(data);
  fs.unlink('/', LiaTalia Bag Cross Italian Genuine Shoulder Protective Body with Handbag Leather Storage (BAG K60K604314 KLEIN Women rot WOMAN CALVIN rot rot xCgZwqunlinkErr) => {
    if (unlinkErr)HANDBAG Red BOWLING TOTE 9130 BOWLING TOTE HvPqzz throw unlinkErr;

The above places a non-blocking call to fs.unlink() within the callback of fs.readFile() which guarantees the correct order of operations.

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