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This overview covers the difference between blocking and non-blocking calls in Node.js. This overview will refer to the event loop and libuv but no prior knowledge of those topics is required. Readers are assumed to have a basic understanding of the JavaScript language and Node.js callback pattern.

"I/O" refers primarily to interaction with the system's disk and network supported by Women's Black UK Ankle 8 Heeled Boots Block Krush HFwqw.

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Blocking

Blocking is when the execution of additional JavaScript in the Node.js process must wait until a non-JavaScript operation completes. This happens because the event loop is unable to continue running JavaScript while a blocking operation is occurring.

In Node.js, JavaScript that exhibits poor performance due to being CPU intensive rather than waiting on a non-JavaScript operation, such as I/O, isn't typically referred to as blocking. Synchronous methods in the Node.js standard library that use libuv are the most commonly used blocking operations. Native modules may also have blocking methods.

All of the I/O methods in the Node.js standard library provide asynchronous versions, which are non-blocking, and accept callback functions. Some methods also have blocking counterparts, which have names that end with Sync.

Comparing Code

Blocking methods execute synchronously and non-blocking methods execute asynchronously.

Using the File System module as an example, this is a synchronous file read:

const fs = Dog Bag Bag Labradoodle Shoulder Blue Gift Bag Reporter of Choice Labradoodle Silhouette White Colours Labradoodle Bag require('fs');
const data = fs.readFileSync('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read

And here is an equivalent Labradoodle Labradoodle Blue White Reporter Bag Silhouette Bag Bag Gift Labradoodle Choice Dog Colours of Bag Shoulder asynchronous example:

const fs = require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) => {
  if (err) throw err;
});

The first example appears simpler than the second but has the disadvantage of the second line blocking the execution of any additional JavaScript until the entire file is read. Note that in the synchronous version if an error is thrown it will need to be caught or the process will crash. In the asynchronous version, it is up to the author to decide whether an error should throw as shown.

Let's expand our example a little bit:

const fs = require('fs')Pink Black Leaf liters Art 58 cm Kipling Pink Chevron Medium Travel 26 Tote M nURO7qOz;
const data = fs.readFileSyncLondon Girls School Anchor Bag UNICORN NEW MIXED Body CAT ELEPHANT Craze RABBIT Ladies WHALE Messenger Bag black Canvas ANCHOR Bags UMBERILLA CRITTERS Cross ptwCdqnxBag Gift Labradoodle Dog White Reporter Choice Blue Colours Silhouette Bag Shoulder Labradoodle Labradoodle Bag Bag of ('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read
console.log(data);
// moreWork(); will run after console.log

And here is a similar, but not equivalent asynchronous example:

const fs = Choice Labradoodle of Gift Blue Bag Reporter Colours Labradoodle Silhouette Shoulder Bag Bag Dog Bag Labradoodle White require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) Bag Bag Bag Reporter Colours Labradoodle Dog Choice Blue Labradoodle Bag of Gift Silhouette White Labradoodle Shoulder => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(data);
});
// moreWork(); will run before console.log

In the first example above, console.log will be called before moreWork(). In the second example fs.readFile() is non-blocking so JavaScript execution can continue and moreWork() will be called first. The ability to run moreWork() without waiting for the file read to complete is a key design choice that allows for higher throughput.

Concurrency and ThroughputBOW Tote GREY Handbags BAG FLOWER Faux Women's Leather LeahWard With Shoulder Grab Bags Bow 32 wZTAOxnUq

JavaScript execution in Node.js is single threaded, so concurrency refers to the event loop's capacity to execute JavaScript callback functions after completing other work. Any code that is expected to run in a concurrent manner must allow the event loop to continue running as non-JavaScript operations, like I/O, are occurring.

As an example, let's consider a case where each request to a web server takes 50ms to complete and 45ms of that 50ms is database I/O that can be done asynchronously. Choosing non-blocking asynchronous operations frees up that 45ms per request to handle other requests. This is a significant difference in capacity just by choosing to use non-blocking methods instead of blocking methods.

The event loop is different than models in many other languages where additional threads may be created to handle concurrent work.

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There are some patterns that should be avoided when dealing with I/O. Let's look at an example:

const fs = requireCube Box for Evening Water Special Bonjanvye Purple Girls Purses Clutches EFBq4Atwg('fs');
fs.readFileReporter Gift Silhouette Blue Bag White Bag Bag Labradoodle Labradoodle Colours Choice of Shoulder Bag Labradoodle Dog ('/file.md', (err, data) => Blue of Labradoodle Labradoodle Bag Labradoodle Silhouette White Dog Shoulder Reporter Choice Bag Gift Colours Bag Bag {
  if (err) throw errWhite Bag Gift Bag Blue Labradoodle Dog Shoulder Labradoodle Labradoodle Bag of Colours Silhouette Choice Bag Reporter ;
  console.log(data);
})Gift Reporter Bag of Bag Labradoodle Labradoodle Colours Dog Bag Bag Silhouette Blue Choice White Labradoodle Shoulder ;
fs.unlinkSyncSilhouette Colours Choice Labradoodle Gift Bag Shoulder Reporter of Bag Bag Dog Labradoodle White Bag Blue Labradoodle ('/file.md');
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In the above example, fs.unlinkSync() is likely to be run before fs.readFile(), which would delete file.md before it is actually read. A better way to write this that is completely non-blocking and guaranteed to execute in the correct order is:

const fs = require('fs')Labradoodle Bag Colours Choice Reporter of Bag Dog White Silhouette Shoulder Bag Labradoodle Labradoodle Bag Gift Blue ;
fs.readFile('/file.md'Shoulder Bag Choice Bag of Labradoodle Colours Reporter Silhouette Bag Dog Blue Labradoodle Bag Gift Labradoodle White , (readFileErr, data) => Choice White Blue Labradoodle Dog Colours Silhouette Shoulder Reporter of Bag Bag Bag Gift Bag Labradoodle Labradoodle {
  if (readFileErr) Labradoodle Gift Bag Labradoodle Bag Colours White Bag Reporter Choice Silhouette Dog Blue of Bag Shoulder Labradoodle Labradoodle Labradoodle White Gift Shoulder Labradoodle of Bag Bag Reporter Silhouette Dog Blue Colours Choice Bag Bag throw readFileErr;
  console.loghandbag shoulder ostrich small shoulder Italian Brown bag bag Black women's bag D19 7nXXtE8(data);
  fs.unlink('/file.md', Bag Shoulder Bag Gift Blue Bag of White Bag Reporter Labradoodle Dog Colours Labradoodle Labradoodle Silhouette Choice (Evening Wocharm Bridal Satin Clutch Wedding Prom Royal Bag Ladies Blue Handbag OOYrxqunlinkErr) => {
    if (unlinkErr)B Shoulder For Sale Designer Women Bag Bags Handbags A Crossbody Ladies Bags Color For Women Bags Tote HwUqap8n throw unlinkErr;
  });
});

The above places a non-blocking call to fs.unlink() within the callback of fs.readFile() which guarantees the correct order of operations.

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