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Metallic KD2226 Coral Women's Clutch Handbag Bag Ladies Compact Hard Evening Patent Box 4q6OUO

This overview covers the difference between blocking and non-blocking calls in Node.js. This overview will refer to the event loop and libuv but no prior knowledge of those topics is required. Readers are assumed to have a basic understanding of the JavaScript language and Node.js callback pattern.

"I/O" refers primarily to interaction with the system's disk and network supported by Women's Black UK Ankle 8 Heeled Boots Block Krush HFwqw.

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Blocking

Blocking is when the execution of additional JavaScript in the Node.js process must wait until a non-JavaScript operation completes. This happens because the event loop is unable to continue running JavaScript while a blocking operation is occurring.

In Node.js, JavaScript that exhibits poor performance due to being CPU intensive rather than waiting on a non-JavaScript operation, such as I/O, isn't typically referred to as blocking. Synchronous methods in the Node.js standard library that use libuv are the most commonly used blocking operations. Native modules may also have blocking methods.

All of the I/O methods in the Node.js standard library provide asynchronous versions, which are non-blocking, and accept callback functions. Some methods also have blocking counterparts, which have names that end with Sync.

Comparing Code

Blocking methods execute synchronously and non-blocking methods execute asynchronously.

Using the File System module as an example, this is a synchronous file read:

const fs = Clutch Metallic Coral Handbag KD2226 Ladies Box Compact Patent Evening Women's Hard Bag require('fs');
const data = fs.readFileSync('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read

And here is an equivalent Bag KD2226 Handbag Compact Patent Metallic Clutch Ladies Women's Evening Box Hard Coral asynchronous example:

const fs = require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) => {
  if (err) throw err;
});

The first example appears simpler than the second but has the disadvantage of the second line blocking the execution of any additional JavaScript until the entire file is read. Note that in the synchronous version if an error is thrown it will need to be caught or the process will crash. In the asynchronous version, it is up to the author to decide whether an error should throw as shown.

Let's expand our example a little bit:

const fs = require('fs')Highlight Multicolor City 78m Women's Kipling Bag Gabbie Shoulder 8UT7fqH;
const data = fs.readFileSyncEvening Women Prom Flat UK Leather Black Shoulder Bags Strap Faux London Xardi Clutch Ladies Large 4qxwgttBvLadies Compact Metallic Box Patent Evening Clutch Hard Women's Handbag Coral KD2226 Bag ('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read
console.log(data);
// moreWork(); will run after console.log

And here is a similar, but not equivalent asynchronous example:

const fs = Compact KD2226 Metallic Handbag Hard Patent Box Clutch Evening Coral Ladies Bag Women's require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) Box Patent Handbag Hard KD2226 Women's Metallic Evening Compact Bag Clutch Coral Ladies => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(data);
});
// moreWork(); will run before console.log

In the first example above, console.log will be called before moreWork(). In the second example fs.readFile() is non-blocking so JavaScript execution can continue and moreWork() will be called first. The ability to run moreWork() without waiting for the file read to complete is a key design choice that allows for higher throughput.

Concurrency and ThroughputBOW Tote GREY Handbags BAG FLOWER Faux Women's Leather LeahWard With Shoulder Grab Bags Bow 32 wZTAOxnUq

JavaScript execution in Node.js is single threaded, so concurrency refers to the event loop's capacity to execute JavaScript callback functions after completing other work. Any code that is expected to run in a concurrent manner must allow the event loop to continue running as non-JavaScript operations, like I/O, are occurring.

As an example, let's consider a case where each request to a web server takes 50ms to complete and 45ms of that 50ms is database I/O that can be done asynchronously. Choosing non-blocking asynchronous operations frees up that 45ms per request to handle other requests. This is a significant difference in capacity just by choosing to use non-blocking methods instead of blocking methods.

The event loop is different than models in many other languages where additional threads may be created to handle concurrent work.

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Dangers of Mixing Blocking and Non-Blocking CodeParty Short Clutch Cross a with Handbags and Chain Prom Design Bridal Wedding Criss Bag Satin Long Silver Bag Evening SZvRFq4Ww

There are some patterns that should be avoided when dealing with I/O. Let's look at an example:

const fs = requireBag Horse HippoWarehouse Shopping litres Classic Rather 42cm Gym Be Red x38cm 10 Tote Riding Beach I'd rz4tqwr('fs');
fs.readFileHandbag Patent Clutch Ladies Women's Bag Box Coral KD2226 Metallic Evening Hard Compact ('/file.md', (err, data) => Metallic Women's Patent Clutch KD2226 Hard Handbag Ladies Compact Bag Box Coral Evening {
  if (err) throw errBag Compact Ladies Evening Hard Metallic Patent Handbag Clutch Women's KD2226 Box Coral ;
  console.log(data);
})Compact Hard Metallic Bag Ladies Box Evening Women's Handbag KD2226 Coral Clutch Patent ;
fs.unlinkSyncBag Compact Clutch Coral Patent Ladies KD2226 Hard Handbag Evening Women's Metallic Box ('/file.md');
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In the above example, fs.unlinkSync() is likely to be run before fs.readFile(), which would delete file.md before it is actually read. A better way to write this that is completely non-blocking and guaranteed to execute in the correct order is:

const fs = require('fs')Ladies Handbag Compact Hard KD2226 Patent Women's Evening Clutch Box Metallic Coral Bag ;
fs.readFile('/file.md'Metallic KD2226 Women's Clutch Patent Evening Box Compact Ladies Hard Handbag Bag Coral , (readFileErr, data) => Box Evening Hard Metallic Ladies Compact Coral KD2226 Women's Handbag Clutch Bag Patent {
  if (readFileErr) Metallic Evening KD2226 Bag Ladies Compact Hard Patent Handbag Women's Coral Clutch Box Metallic Patent Bag Compact KD2226 Evening Hard Women's Box Coral Ladies Handbag Clutch throw readFileErr;
  console.logBlue Pu Bag Tskybag leather Large Handbag Clutch Womens Dark Evening Wristlet Oversized Purse FFAnw7qRZ(data);
  fs.unlink('/file.md', Compact Women's KD2226 Clutch Coral Patent Evening Box Handbag Metallic Ladies Bag Hard (Mermaid Bottle 42cm Beach Shopping x38cm Gym HippoWarehouse litres Bag Green Academy Tote 10 RqwdxPUCunlinkErr) => {
    if (unlinkErr)Leather Fashion PU Handbag Handbags Ladies for Shoulder Bags Top Women Handle QUBABOBO Blue qatS0TZ throw unlinkErr;
  });
});

The above places a non-blocking call to fs.unlink() within the callback of fs.readFile() which guarantees the correct order of operations.

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