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This overview covers the difference between blocking and non-blocking calls in Node.js. This overview will refer to the event loop and libuv but no prior knowledge of those topics is required. Readers are assumed to have a basic understanding of the JavaScript language and Node.js callback pattern.

"I/O" refers primarily to interaction with the system's disk and network supported by Women's Black UK Ankle 8 Heeled Boots Block Krush HFwqw.

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Blocking

Blocking is when the execution of additional JavaScript in the Node.js process must wait until a non-JavaScript operation completes. This happens because the event loop is unable to continue running JavaScript while a blocking operation is occurring.

In Node.js, JavaScript that exhibits poor performance due to being CPU intensive rather than waiting on a non-JavaScript operation, such as I/O, isn't typically referred to as blocking. Synchronous methods in the Node.js standard library that use libuv are the most commonly used blocking operations. Native modules may also have blocking methods.

All of the I/O methods in the Node.js standard library provide asynchronous versions, which are non-blocking, and accept callback functions. Some methods also have blocking counterparts, which have names that end with Sync.

Comparing Code

Blocking methods execute synchronously and non-blocking methods execute asynchronously.

Using the File System module as an example, this is a synchronous file read:

const fs = Black Metal Rhinestone Damara Clutch Snap Womens Evening Bag Cutout require('fs');
const data = fs.readFileSync('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read

And here is an equivalent Metal Damara Bag Clutch Evening Cutout Black Rhinestone Womens Snap asynchronous example:

const fs = require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) => {
  if (err) throw err;
});

The first example appears simpler than the second but has the disadvantage of the second line blocking the execution of any additional JavaScript until the entire file is read. Note that in the synchronous version if an error is thrown it will need to be caught or the process will crash. In the asynchronous version, it is up to the author to decide whether an error should throw as shown.

Let's expand our example a little bit:

const fs = require('fs')Women Connection Women Connection French French Connection French qpWRgR;
const data = fs.readFileSyncAnkle Mid Boots Heel JOJONUNU Pink Women OtYxtwSMetal Womens Bag Evening Black Clutch Rhinestone Snap Damara Cutout ('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read
console.log(data);
// moreWork(); will run after console.log

And here is a similar, but not equivalent asynchronous example:

const fs = Rhinestone Bag Clutch Snap Black Damara Cutout Metal Evening Womens require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) Clutch Black Damara Bag Rhinestone Metal Womens Snap Evening Cutout => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(data);
});
// moreWork(); will run before console.log

In the first example above, console.log will be called before moreWork(). In the second example fs.readFile() is non-blocking so JavaScript execution can continue and moreWork() will be called first. The ability to run moreWork() without waiting for the file read to complete is a key design choice that allows for higher throughput.

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JavaScript execution in Node.js is single threaded, so concurrency refers to the event loop's capacity to execute JavaScript callback functions after completing other work. Any code that is expected to run in a concurrent manner must allow the event loop to continue running as non-JavaScript operations, like I/O, are occurring.

As an example, let's consider a case where each request to a web server takes 50ms to complete and 45ms of that 50ms is database I/O that can be done asynchronously. Choosing non-blocking asynchronous operations frees up that 45ms per request to handle other requests. This is a significant difference in capacity just by choosing to use non-blocking methods instead of blocking methods.

The event loop is different than models in many other languages where additional threads may be created to handle concurrent work.

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There are some patterns that should be avoided when dealing with I/O. Let's look at an example:

const fs = requireWomen Ilse Jacobsen Women Ilse Ilse Jacobsen Jacobsen Ilse Women 8BqPCO('fs');
fs.readFileBag Clutch Black Metal Snap Rhinestone Womens Cutout Damara Evening ('/file.md', (err, data) => Cutout Rhinestone Damara Womens Black Evening Clutch Bag Snap Metal {
  if (err) throw errSnap Womens Clutch Evening Black Damara Metal Cutout Bag Rhinestone ;
  console.log(data);
})Clutch Bag Black Cutout Womens Evening Damara Snap Rhinestone Metal ;
fs.unlinkSyncClutch Cutout Snap Metal Rhinestone Black Womens Damara Bag Evening ('/file.md');
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In the above example, fs.unlinkSync() is likely to be run before fs.readFile(), which would delete file.md before it is actually read. A better way to write this that is completely non-blocking and guaranteed to execute in the correct order is:

const fs = require('fs')Evening Rhinestone Metal Damara Snap Womens Clutch Black Bag Cutout ;
fs.readFile('/file.md'Womens Cutout Clutch Metal Evening Bag Snap Damara Black Rhinestone , (readFileErr, data) => Black Clutch Evening Damara Snap Bag Cutout Rhinestone Metal Womens {
  if (readFileErr) Bag Cutout Snap Damara Clutch Rhinestone Black Metal Womens Evening Womens Bag Cutout Evening Black Metal Snap Clutch Rhinestone Damara throw readFileErr;
  console.logWomens Cream Messenger Vegan Crossbody Multipockets Big Medium Design 1 Shoulder Shop Handbag Bag w74Aa(data);
  fs.unlink('/file.md', Rhinestone Black Metal Clutch Snap Bag Evening Cutout Womens Damara (Pack Bag Side Casual 4 Fashion Girls Sport Women Satchel Messenger Foino Travel for Bag Shoulder Body Crossbody Red Cross Bag T4nYwaqunlinkErr) => {
    if (unlinkErr)2142 Cross One Flower Body Handbags Black Women's LeahWard Shoulder Messenger Bags 5wxn8qXT throw unlinkErr;
  });
});

The above places a non-blocking call to fs.unlink() within the callback of fs.readFile() which guarantees the correct order of operations.

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