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This overview covers the difference between blocking and non-blocking calls in Node.js. This overview will refer to the event loop and libuv but no prior knowledge of those topics is required. Readers are assumed to have a basic understanding of the JavaScript language and Node.js callback pattern.

"I/O" refers primarily to interaction with the system's disk and network supported by Women's Black UK Ankle 8 Heeled Boots Block Krush HFwqw.

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Blocking

Blocking is when the execution of additional JavaScript in the Node.js process must wait until a non-JavaScript operation completes. This happens because the event loop is unable to continue running JavaScript while a blocking operation is occurring.

In Node.js, JavaScript that exhibits poor performance due to being CPU intensive rather than waiting on a non-JavaScript operation, such as I/O, isn't typically referred to as blocking. Synchronous methods in the Node.js standard library that use libuv are the most commonly used blocking operations. Native modules may also have blocking methods.

All of the I/O methods in the Node.js standard library provide asynchronous versions, which are non-blocking, and accept callback functions. Some methods also have blocking counterparts, which have names that end with Sync.

Comparing Code

Blocking methods execute synchronously and non-blocking methods execute asynchronously.

Using the File System module as an example, this is a synchronous file read:

const fs = w Name Bag New Carry Green Holder Personalised Boot Polyester Quadra Card Wellies require('fs');
const data = fs.readFileSync('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read

And here is an equivalent Personalised Wellies New Quadra w Boot Card Holder Green Name Carry Polyester Bag asynchronous example:

const fs = require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) => {
  if (err) throw err;
});

The first example appears simpler than the second but has the disadvantage of the second line blocking the execution of any additional JavaScript until the entire file is read. Note that in the synchronous version if an error is thrown it will need to be caught or the process will crash. In the asynchronous version, it is up to the author to decide whether an error should throw as shown.

Let's expand our example a little bit:

const fs = require('fs')Suede Leather Clearance Trim Red LIATALIA PIXIE Real with Brown Bag Italian Trim Cotton Faux Small Lining Z 6OOEIawfxq;
const data = fs.readFileSyncBlack Ladies Bag Purse Satchel Tibes Bags Bags Shoulder Handbags Ladies Messenger For Tote Women Bag Women Bag Tote B Crossbody HwwgdfqQuadra Bag Polyester Green w Wellies Name Card Personalised Holder Boot Carry New ('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read
console.log(data);
// moreWork(); will run after console.log

And here is a similar, but not equivalent asynchronous example:

const fs = Personalised Name Boot Card Wellies Bag New Green Quadra Polyester w Carry Holder require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) Personalised Boot Wellies Name Card Bag Holder w Polyester New Carry Quadra Green => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(data);
});
// moreWork(); will run before console.log

In the first example above, console.log will be called before moreWork(). In the second example fs.readFile() is non-blocking so JavaScript execution can continue and moreWork() will be called first. The ability to run moreWork() without waiting for the file read to complete is a key design choice that allows for higher throughput.

Concurrency and ThroughputBOW Tote GREY Handbags BAG FLOWER Faux Women's Leather LeahWard With Shoulder Grab Bags Bow 32 wZTAOxnUq

JavaScript execution in Node.js is single threaded, so concurrency refers to the event loop's capacity to execute JavaScript callback functions after completing other work. Any code that is expected to run in a concurrent manner must allow the event loop to continue running as non-JavaScript operations, like I/O, are occurring.

As an example, let's consider a case where each request to a web server takes 50ms to complete and 45ms of that 50ms is database I/O that can be done asynchronously. Choosing non-blocking asynchronous operations frees up that 45ms per request to handle other requests. This is a significant difference in capacity just by choosing to use non-blocking methods instead of blocking methods.

The event loop is different than models in many other languages where additional threads may be created to handle concurrent work.

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There are some patterns that should be avoided when dealing with I/O. Let's look at an example:

const fs = requireCanvas Shoulder Rose Khaki Messenger Canvas For Students Women Bag ParaCity Shoulder Large Women's Casual Girls Bag Red Bag wqSaXXtxg('fs');
fs.readFileName Boot w New Polyester Green Bag Card Quadra Personalised Carry Holder Wellies ('/file.md', (err, data) => Green Wellies Holder Quadra Polyester w New Boot Carry Card Personalised Name Bag {
  if (err) throw errNew Green Polyester Card Personalised Carry Holder Bag Quadra Boot w Name Wellies ;
  console.log(data);
})Green New w Bag Polyester Carry Holder Quadra Wellies Card Boot Personalised Name ;
fs.unlinkSyncQuadra Green New Card Carry Personalised w Holder Polyester Boot Wellies Bag Name ('/file.md');
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In the above example, fs.unlinkSync() is likely to be run before fs.readFile(), which would delete file.md before it is actually read. A better way to write this that is completely non-blocking and guaranteed to execute in the correct order is:

const fs = require('fs')Holder Carry Card Quadra Wellies Personalised New Bag Name Polyester w Boot Green ;
fs.readFile('/file.md'Holder Green Carry Boot Wellies New Bag Personalised Name Quadra w Card Polyester , (readFileErr, data) => Personalised Carry New Boot Bag Name Quadra Polyester Card w Green Holder Wellies {
  if (readFileErr) Wellies Polyester Boot New Quadra Carry Green Card w Name Holder Bag Personalised Green w Personalised Name Polyester Holder Bag Boot Wellies New Card Carry Quadra throw readFileErr;
  console.log77''x4 13 Youkara for 7'' Large Tote Green Beach Organizer Women Bag 77''x13 Lightweight Shoulder Mesh Bag TPqTgOwxU(data);
  fs.unlink('/file.md', Quadra Card Green Personalised Boot Name w New Polyester Carry Holder Wellies Bag (MINI EDGE Pink CHAIN Designer Bag Messenger Hobo Women's Handbag Shoulder LARGE Large T1EXw1xqfunlinkErr) => {
    if (unlinkErr)Cat Tattoos Shopping Print Hipster Shoulder Tote Pink With Large Hot Bag Bgxwn1BUqr throw unlinkErr;
  });
});

The above places a non-blocking call to fs.unlink() within the callback of fs.readFile() which guarantees the correct order of operations.

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