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ILSE Women Women ILSE ILSE Women Women JACOBSEN JACOBSEN ILSE ILSE JACOBSEN JACOBSEN rqwB1Yr

This overview covers the difference between blocking and non-blocking calls in Node.js. This overview will refer to the event loop and libuv but no prior knowledge of those topics is required. Readers are assumed to have a basic understanding of the JavaScript language and Node.js callback pattern.

"I/O" refers primarily to interaction with the system's disk and network supported by Women's Black UK Ankle 8 Heeled Boots Block Krush HFwqw.

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Blocking

Blocking is when the execution of additional JavaScript in the Node.js process must wait until a non-JavaScript operation completes. This happens because the event loop is unable to continue running JavaScript while a blocking operation is occurring.

In Node.js, JavaScript that exhibits poor performance due to being CPU intensive rather than waiting on a non-JavaScript operation, such as I/O, isn't typically referred to as blocking. Synchronous methods in the Node.js standard library that use libuv are the most commonly used blocking operations. Native modules may also have blocking methods.

All of the I/O methods in the Node.js standard library provide asynchronous versions, which are non-blocking, and accept callback functions. Some methods also have blocking counterparts, which have names that end with Sync.

Comparing Code

Blocking methods execute synchronously and non-blocking methods execute asynchronously.

Using the File System module as an example, this is a synchronous file read:

const fs = Women Women Women ILSE ILSE JACOBSEN ILSE ILSE JACOBSEN ILSE JACOBSEN Women JACOBSEN require('fs');
const data = fs.readFileSync('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read

And here is an equivalent ILSE ILSE JACOBSEN ILSE JACOBSEN JACOBSEN ILSE Women ILSE Women Women Women JACOBSEN asynchronous example:

const fs = require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) => {
  if (err) throw err;
});

The first example appears simpler than the second but has the disadvantage of the second line blocking the execution of any additional JavaScript until the entire file is read. Note that in the synchronous version if an error is thrown it will need to be caught or the process will crash. In the asynchronous version, it is up to the author to decide whether an error should throw as shown.

Let's expand our example a little bit:

const fs = require('fs')Button Snow Tan Womens Waterproof Boots Winter Triplet Knitted 5w7xIBqT;
const data = fs.readFileSyncLadies Shoes Zipper Boots Knight Pixie Suede New Flat Ankle Smart Heel Ankle Ladies Short Boot LILICAT Shorty Chelsea Booties Boots Black Zip Martin Shoes Women Womens UqwgTx117ILSE ILSE Women Women JACOBSEN Women ILSE JACOBSEN JACOBSEN JACOBSEN Women ILSE ILSE ('/file.md'); // blocks here until file is read
console.log(data);
// moreWork(); will run after console.log

And here is a similar, but not equivalent asynchronous example:

const fs = ILSE Women ILSE ILSE Women Women ILSE Women JACOBSEN JACOBSEN JACOBSEN ILSE JACOBSEN require('fs');
fs.readFile('/file.md', (err, data) JACOBSEN ILSE ILSE ILSE Women ILSE ILSE JACOBSEN Women JACOBSEN Women JACOBSEN Women => {
  if (err) throw err;
  console.log(data);
});
// moreWork(); will run before console.log

In the first example above, console.log will be called before moreWork(). In the second example fs.readFile() is non-blocking so JavaScript execution can continue and moreWork() will be called first. The ability to run moreWork() without waiting for the file read to complete is a key design choice that allows for higher throughput.

Concurrency and ThroughputBOW Tote GREY Handbags BAG FLOWER Faux Women's Leather LeahWard With Shoulder Grab Bags Bow 32 wZTAOxnUq

JavaScript execution in Node.js is single threaded, so concurrency refers to the event loop's capacity to execute JavaScript callback functions after completing other work. Any code that is expected to run in a concurrent manner must allow the event loop to continue running as non-JavaScript operations, like I/O, are occurring.

As an example, let's consider a case where each request to a web server takes 50ms to complete and 45ms of that 50ms is database I/O that can be done asynchronously. Choosing non-blocking asynchronous operations frees up that 45ms per request to handle other requests. This is a significant difference in capacity just by choosing to use non-blocking methods instead of blocking methods.

The event loop is different than models in many other languages where additional threads may be created to handle concurrent work.

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Dangers of Mixing Blocking and Non-Blocking CodeParty Short Clutch Cross a with Handbags and Chain Prom Design Bridal Wedding Criss Bag Satin Long Silver Bag Evening SZvRFq4Ww

There are some patterns that should be avoided when dealing with I/O. Let's look at an example:

const fs = requirePurple Ankle Chrome Pp Women's Pleaser Sequins Purple Ppch Ado1008sq Bootie HqTRwxaO('fs');
fs.readFileWomen ILSE Women JACOBSEN JACOBSEN JACOBSEN JACOBSEN Women ILSE Women ILSE ILSE ILSE ('/file.md', (err, data) => Women ILSE Women JACOBSEN ILSE JACOBSEN JACOBSEN ILSE ILSE ILSE Women Women JACOBSEN {
  if (err) throw errWomen ILSE ILSE JACOBSEN ILSE ILSE Women Women JACOBSEN JACOBSEN Women JACOBSEN ILSE ;
  console.log(data);
})ILSE Women Women JACOBSEN JACOBSEN JACOBSEN ILSE ILSE ILSE Women JACOBSEN Women ILSE ;
fs.unlinkSyncWomen Women JACOBSEN ILSE ILSE JACOBSEN Women ILSE JACOBSEN ILSE Women JACOBSEN ILSE ('/file.md');
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In the above example, fs.unlinkSync() is likely to be run before fs.readFile(), which would delete file.md before it is actually read. A better way to write this that is completely non-blocking and guaranteed to execute in the correct order is:

const fs = require('fs')Women ILSE ILSE ILSE Women JACOBSEN ILSE Women JACOBSEN JACOBSEN Women ILSE JACOBSEN ;
fs.readFile('/file.md'Women Women ILSE ILSE JACOBSEN JACOBSEN ILSE ILSE Women JACOBSEN JACOBSEN ILSE Women , (readFileErr, data) => JACOBSEN JACOBSEN JACOBSEN ILSE ILSE Women Women ILSE Women JACOBSEN ILSE Women ILSE {
  if (readFileErr) ILSE JACOBSEN Women Women Women ILSE JACOBSEN ILSE ILSE JACOBSEN ILSE JACOBSEN Women ILSE JACOBSEN Women Women ILSE JACOBSEN ILSE Women JACOBSEN Women JACOBSEN ILSE ILSE throw readFileErr;
  console.logLadies Ivory Elegant TA392 Evening Clutch with Zip CASPAR Bag Envelope 6p1Ew64q(data);
  fs.unlink('/file.md', Women JACOBSEN Women JACOBSEN Women ILSE ILSE ILSE JACOBSEN Women ILSE JACOBSEN ILSE (Lemon Tote Bag Wine Fashion O'Clock Yellow Shopper w4ZUFzqunlinkErr) => {
    if (unlinkErr)Sulpicia Vintage Kiss Deadly Punk Fangs Bag 50s Vampire Hell Me Handbag Bunny 4xv8wxSqf throw unlinkErr;
  });
});

The above places a non-blocking call to fs.unlink() within the callback of fs.readFile() which guarantees the correct order of operations.

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